Mastering CNC Swiss - Online
Lesson Outline

"Scenes" refers to the number of scenes in the instruction for both the core and specific sections.

Level 1: Basic Operating Skills
(Modules 1 to 9)

Module 1: Basic Components and Operations [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 104, Citizen 32, Star 30, Tsugami 23

The Core portion of the lesson begins by showing bar stock and the bar loader. It defines turning and the computer control of the machining process. The types of CNC control found on Citizen, Star and Tsugami machines are discussed next. Conventional turning is compared to live tool and C axis operation. The Guide Bushing is identified along with its function of reducing material movement. Next, the sliding headstock is shown along with an explanation of the collet mechanism and Main Spindle and its function. This is followed by an explanation of the Sub Spindle and the cutoff process. Collet jaw compression to hold the bar during machining is demonstrated. The movement of the main collet after cutoff to set the part length is examined. Next, the tool slide and indexing process is covered along with live and end-working tools. This is followed by an explanation of the computer control panel and the part program it executes. The display screen and its organization into pages related to functions of Position, Program and Offset are explained.

After the Core section, the specific brand of Swiss style lathe shown to the individual will be based on the selections made during their enrollment. The primary components and operations of the brand selected are shown. The addition of a vertical set of soft keys on the right side of the Fanuc 32 series controls on the Star and Tsugami is examined along with the newer Fanuc and Mitsubishi controls on Citizen models.

Module 2: The Coordinate Grid System [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 78, Citizen 37, Star 30, Tsugami 30

As the most fundamental part of the CNC lathe and its operation, the coordinate grid is covered in detail in this module. It begins with an explanation of the need for precise control of tool movement to create workpiece dimensions and how the grid achieves this. The typical three-axis grid, also referred to as the right-hand coordinate grid, is explained and then refined to explain the axes used for Swiss turning. The establishment of intersecting Planes and their quadrants and the signs of the coordinates within each quadrant is detailed.

The standards of EIA and ISO are introduced to define how the axes are applied to spindle rotation and tool movements of all CNC lathes. The concepts of "addresses" assigned and the plus and minus values created on either side of the origin are revealed. The intersection of X, Y and Z lines to establish coordinates is then examined. Next, the location of X zero as centerline of the spindle is highlighted along with a discussion of how the right hand can be used to detect the plus and minus directions of the grid. The grid associated with the Sub-Spindle side is also covered.

Next, the inch and metric units of measure used within the grid and the codes or parameters used to define the operational units, are explained. The concept of initial-point and end-point as it relates to the coordinates found in a program is discussed. The C axis of machining is expanded upon along with the application of live tooling with its coordinates in degrees.

The coordinate grids and axis controls are shown for each CNC Swiss lathe model in the specific sections that follow. Because some advanced models have a third set of tools, a third set of axes is introduced.

Module 3: The Signs of Coordinates and Directions of Movement [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 52, Citizen 19, Star 30, Tsugami 21

As many machining errors by operators involve the signs of coordinates and the signs of machine movements, the next module covers these concepts in detail. The location of X1 and Z1 zero creating Program Zero is defined as it relates to the Guide Bushing. Next, the trainee is cautioned to not confuse the signs of coordinates with the directions of movement of tools or the bar. Several examples are used to clarify these concepts.

Since machining can occur with either movement of the material into a tool or the movement of a tool into the material, these concepts are discussed as it relates to the signs of coordinates and adjustments.

The use of more than one grid system in a lathe has always been a point of confusion for trainees. The use of multiple zero points, and the resulting grids they establish, are explained to overcome this problem. The fixed zero point from which all others are located is defined as Machine Zero or Home. Next, the Program or Work Zero point is defined and it relevance to the coordinates within a program. This is followed by the Relative Zero location and grid. Finally, the Distance-to-Go grid and its importance in connection with the previous discussion about start-point and end-point values within programmed blocks is examined. Its importance in the checking of new programs is further highlighted.

In the specific sections that follow the application of multiple grids as used on Citizen, Star, and Tsugami models are explained accordingly. The reversal of grid coordinates for tools T1100 to 1500 on Tsugami is also explained. Because more advanced models may have a third set of tools, a third set of axes and three program execution is examined.

Module 4: Controlling Tool Movements [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 50

Since the grid system has been established, the positioning of the machine components within the grid can be covered. The module begins with an explanation of the way in which the computer controls the movements of Indexing, Positioning, and Machining. The speed of these movements are then broken down further into rapid traverse and feed rates.

The concerns about cycle time are examined next. The need to complete all movements at the highest possible speed while maintaining the required quality is made clear as it relates to the motors, encoders, ball screws and ways. The use of T codes is analyzed. The process of moving the components and the feedback of the current location of the active tool as provided by the encoders is outlined. The concept of Feedrate is clarified and the variations needed for the type of cut and the material being machined.

The rotational axes C and A are considered with illustrations on various machines. The location of tool heads on three path controls are detailed. The Jog mode is introduced along with the use of the manual axis buttons.

The lesson then defines the basic machining movements needed to create a finished workpiece including such items as rough and finish cuts. The concepts of depth of cut, feed rate with F address words, and surface speed are defined and their interrelationships defined.

Module 5: Machining Operations and their Tools [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 103

This module now moves into the specific types of machining that the Swiss lathe can perform; turning, facing, drilling, and so on. Turning of ID and OD surfaces is investigated initially. Tool holders used for turning operations are revealed along with the shank size as it relates to machine model. Tool layout documents are shown and the definition of the "hand" of a tool examined.

Programmed T addresses for tool numbers are then highlighted as they relate to tool mounting positions. Indexable inserts and brazed carbide and their shapes are covered next. ANSI standards relating to inserts are introduced. The definition of machining processes continues with facing. The use of constant surface-speed is detailed by looking at spindle speed changes during facing operations.

Drilling operations are investigated next including spot drill, center drill and standard twist drills. Drill holder types are examined. OD Grooving operations and their tooling follow. Single-point thread tools and their processes are covered along with the required synchronization of their speed and feed rates. Tapping operations and the required tooling are illustrated.

Boring processes for precise ID turning prior to thread turning or to create higher quality finishes are also examined. Because each machining process requires coolant supplied to the cutting tool, a discussion of the coolant system follows. Positioning of coolant flow to reach under the chip formation area on the tool is stressed. Adjustment systems to control coolant volume are examined as well. The removal of the coolant and chips from the machining area is shown in the following portion by examining chip conveyors. Lastly, powered tooling is discussed along with the C axis control of the spindle positioning. Both OD milling and face drilling are used as examples.

Module 6: Bar Loader Operations [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 31, LNS 51, CAV20L 76, FMB 190, Iemca 61, Edge 44

The module begins by defining the functions of the automatic bar loader and they types of manual and automatic operations. A typical manual control panel is illustrated next. Cautions about bar cleanliness and condition such as size, material type, bar end chamfer, and straightness are examined. The bar channel and the sizing of channel guides is discussed. The principle of hydrodynamic pressure is explained. This is then applied to the bar rotating within the oil in the channel guides and its effect at reducing vibration. The location of the bar loader oil supply is then revealed. The length of bars is then discussed as it relates to the values entered during loader setup. The detection of remnant length and the removal of remnants follows. The use of a bar gripper to removes remnants from the pusher is then demonstrated.

Specific sections on LNS, CAV20, FMB, Edge, and Iemca cover the following: Trainees learn how to remove the bar remaining in the spindle using the Manual Control Panel. Pusher removal and feed finger replacement is covered next. Setting of the Bar Guides for a new stock diameter is explained and the adjustment of bar separators. Manual bar loading of the new bars is then demonstrated. The bar loader is then programmed for the new bar material loaded. The display for the "parts remaining" from the currently loaded bar is revealed along with the Emergency Stop button.

Module 7: Program Codes and Coordinates [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 69, Citizen 29, Star 53, Tsugami 52

The common addresses of G, M, T, S, R and P are introduced. The basic structure of codes is explained as it involves letters and numbers along with the suppression of leading zeros. G codes are examined using the G01 code and its coordinate combinations as an example. The concept of path interpolation is detailed. Information on M codes and their functions begin using the M08 example. The grouping of blocks into toolpaths using T codes and the ability to find such groups on the printout of manuscripts is illustrated. The separate programs for both main and sub spindle are shown. T codes are then examined further with the variations that might be found in various programs. The end of programs and the use of the M02 and M30 codes and their function is revealed. The concept of modal and non-modal codes is then explained as well as default codes from within each modal group. A typical display screen of the currently active codes is shown next. The concept of blocks and those without G codes are explained. The last portion of the core module explains how to properly read the decimal values in both inch and metric systems to aid in communication with others in the shop.

The machine-specific portions of this module cover the code groups and some of the rules regarding programming. For Citizen, A , B and C and H groups of codes are covered. The programming of T codes as it impacts the active tool and offset applied are examined. The S code functions are clarified next. Main spindle indexing and C axis functions are illustrated. Synchronization codes are discussed next. The G999 and N999 codes along with the M56 count code are examined. Additional M code groups are discussed along with those reserved for bar loader functions.

The Star's use of T codes is explained initially along with the typical offsets that are used for some tool positions. The use of T00 to cancel offsets is explained next. The resetting of the coordinate grid with a G120 code is covered in detail with an example of the programming. The T2000 and 2900 codes are shown using examples of a typical program. The use of the G131 and G130 code, and the calculations that are performed, are then explained. The two sets of M codes for each spindle is displayed next.

In the Tsugami section, the M03 and M04 codes are explained regarding spindle rotation as seen in the machining area. Next, the application of T codes is explained. The use of the A axis is explained for tools on either side of the main spindle. The factory-set centering offset is explained and the T Offset pages displayed. The functions of the G300 and G310 codes as well as G50 are taught next. An example of programming using a G150 is revealed. An explanation of the spindle synchronization codes follow. The C axis and H offset is shown. The variations of the M9 code are also detailed.

Module 8: Basic Program Structure [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 69

The use of sequence numbers to help identify tool changes is examined along with the relevance of their sequence on program execution. Next, trainees will see how programs without sequence numbers may choose to use other techniques to identify tool changes. The identification and purpose of end-of-block symbols is revealed next. Examples of programming notes to the operator are shown. The use of radius versus diameter programming is explained and the effect it has on tool movement within the X axis. The use of suppressed leading and trailing zeros is detailed next along with examples of codes that can be effected.

Next, the initialization blocks are defined and examples discussed. The use of single, dual, and triple program controls are explained as well and how that impacts execution. The use of wait codes in dual program operations is then examined. The program identifying O address is covered next. Trainees then are taken through the initialization blocks code-by-code to see how offsets are canceled and the control is placed in its initial state. Codes covered include T00, G00, G40, G99, G98, G96, and G97. Examples of screens showing the active codes are displayed next.

The control panel switches that impact program execution are then explained with examples of their use. They include Block Skip and its slash code, Optional Stop, Single Block, One Cycle, and Continuous. Next, the use of the G50 code to shift program zero is illustrated. The establishment of X and Y zero by the physical characteristics of the machine is then examined to help explain why G50 only applies to Z zero in most cases. Programming examples of the use of G50 are then discussed.

Module 9: Reading Macro Programming [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 57

The concept of macro programming for families of parts is introduced in this module. Typical macro values for stock diameter, part diameter and part length are used as examples. The use of Local, Common and System variables are illustrated. The ability to change variables as a program is executed is also explained. The range of numbers used for variables within each control are revealed. A programming example using Common variables is then discussed in detail. The concept of a storage location defined by the variable number is examined.

Next, the math operators that may appear within a macro call are illustrated. The concept of a macro program is introduced with the call codes G65 and G66 and the P address. The relationship of the macro number and its association to letters in the alphabet is outlined. A macro program is then examined. Other language extensions such as Go To, If, and Equal are highlighted in the last portion with typical examples.

Level 2: Advanced Operating Skills
(Modules 10 to 16)

Module 10: Loading and Storing Programs [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 38, Citizen 89, Star 84, Tsugami 50

Two factors determine the available space in the control's memory for programs on either the main or sub-spindle side. The availability of memory storage and the limited directory for program names determines what action an operator must take before loading a new program. This module explains the storage methods and name directories and how to calculate the available space. The designations of characters and bytes are defined. The use of sectors on hard drives is explained to understand why all unused space may not be available. Various loading mechanisms are discussed such as DNC, FEP, laptops, PDAs and flash memory devices. The method of entering small programs by hand using the MDI mode and keypad is then examined.

The three specific modules explain the procedures required to search for a stored program in memory, activate a program, or delete and load a new program on each control type. The use of the folder concept for program storage on newer controls is detailed. Both upload and download functions are covered. The program management functions and the values stored on the Machining Data Page are also detailed for the various Citizen models.

Module 11: Reading Part Programs [ Top ]

Scenes: Citizen 44, Star 62, Tsugami 95

With no core section, this module is made up of three specific sections. Since offsets must be adjusted for tools which have worn, it is important that the trainee can read the program to understand which tool made the cut and where the offset is located as it may be on the main or sub-side based on the programming method used. Each section begins with a review of the simultaneous machining process and the ejection of the part before pick off by the sub spindle for the next part. Returning the cursor is demonstrated along with the placement of the control in MEMORY mode. The balance of the module is a complete review of a sample program covering the macros involved, wait codes, tool changes, part ejection, program zero shifts, pickoff and resetting of the program for the next part. The variations in three-path controls and their wait code approach are examined.

Module 12: Machine Preparation [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 24, Citizen 43, Star 39, Tsugami 50

The module begins with identification of the Main Power breaker and the power on and off of the CNC control. Checking of hydraulic system pressure, coolant level, lubrication level, and air pressure gages are shown as examples. The use of Absolute Encoders is explained with the alternative of zero returning the axes after power up. Door interlocks are revealed. The Coolant Switch is covered as well. Alarm conditions such as axis overtravel are explained and how to recover from them.

On the machine-specific portions, the Citizen Heater status light is disclosed and its effect on startup. Bar loader activation is demonstrated as well. Cautions about the use of the Windows operating system are included. The lower jog speeds are explained when the doors are open and the control is in the Handle and Preparation mode. The Auto Off feature is covered. The use of high pressure coolant systems is examined next. The Auto Cutoff feature is demonstrated to set the machine at the initial position and the rechuck in the Z axis.

The Star section covers the Door Interlock switch functions. Other alarm conditions are explained and the indicator light configuration on the tower. Resetting of the parts counter is explained along with checking the control in preparation for a continuing production. The use of a special program is explained to rechuck the Z axis for part length.

The Tsugami section covers the status lights and their functions. The display of the Parts Counter is covered next. The process of setting the counter and turning the count function on is explained. The Warm Up mode is examined next. The various overtravel and alarm conditions are detailed. The location of the Way Oil system, air pressure regulator, and Spindle Cooler system are revealed.

Module 13: Production Machining [ Top ]

Scenes: Citizen 22, Star 42, Tsugami 37

Each specific section details the process of beginning a production run. The active program number is confirmed by checking the Program display against the setup documentation. Memory mode is selected. Next, the machine is placed at the initial position and the headstock is re-chucked for the next part. The coolant system is made active and the valves are confirmed as open. The bar loader placed in the auto mode. The Program Check screen is displayed and the single-cycle mode is set so the first part can be checked. All doors to the machining area are closed. The display o ptions for three-path controls are revealed. The override control is used to control speeds while observing the machining. Once a part has completed machining on the main and sub side, it is measured and compared to tolerances specified. When the quality is established, the part counter can then be set for the quantity required. The machine is then placed in a continuous production mode and production begins.

Module 14: Adjusting Wear Offsets [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 73, Citizen 32, Star 23, Tsugami 30

The concept of offsets as incremental values is examined. An explanation of the effect of tool wear offsets stresses the importance of understanding that making one feature larger may be making another feature smaller. Adjusting part length on Swiss lathes is then discussed to determine whether cutoff or facing may need adjustment. The four things an operator must determine before making an adjustment are outlined next. After locating the nominal dimension on the print, it is compared to the measured dimension. Determination of the axis of the offset is found by discovering the direction of tool movement which created the faulty dimension or feature location. The direction of tool movement is highlighted in contrast to the sign of the coordinate in establishing the sign of the offset. Examples using OD and ID cuts are shown to illustrate the differences. The use of diameter versus radius programming is examined and the impact on the offset. The effect on Z axis versus X axis machining corrections is then illustrated. Concerns with the location of a feature are also made clear. Before entry of an offset, the trainee is directed to review the program and determine if the assigned offset is stored in the main or sub side offset table. The application of an offset to the tool location as compared to when it was made active in a program is examined by reviewing the programming that applied. The concept of Tool Nose Radius is examined next and the types of machining movements that would be impacted by the application of this type of offset. G40, G41 and G42 are explained along with the use of CAD programming which may eliminate the need for these codes. The use of an orientation code is also reviewed.

The brand-specific modules explain how to locate the correct offset screen and enter the offset value in the proper location in the appropriate table. The variations on lathe models with three tool heads are also revealed.

Module 15: Troubleshooting Quality Problems [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 49

The learner must be prepared to identify quality defects as they appear in jobs for which they assume operational responsibility. This lesson prepares the individual for these duties. The visual and sound indicators of chatter are reviewed. A detailed examination of the causes for chatter is then examined with recommendations on how to overcome the problem during a cut using overrides. Trainees are cautioned to reset the overrides for the next tool or tool path if the problem disappears and then investigate the cause after the part is finished. They are directed to examine five possible areas that may be the most likely sources of the chatter problem and shown how to identify each one from tool or part conditions. Identifying the causes of other surface-finish problems beyond chatter are examined with an explanation of rough and finish cuts and their differing ratios of tool wear. The causes of broken finish inserts is then examined along with a recommendation to check the size after roughing to isolate the cause. Removal rates of the finish tool are then highlighted along with a discussion of how to achieve a balance to bring the dimension to size while maintaining proper finish.

Module 16: Inspecting and Replacing Inserts [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 29

With the tool placed in position to be inspected, the four areas of concern are discussed. They learn to identify chipped, burned, broken and worn inserts through visual and tactile inspection. Examples of each of the problems is examined along with explanations of likely causes such as interrupted cuts and hard materials, lack of coolant or incorrect positioning, and so on. The process of removing, cleaning and replacing an insert is then explained. The importance of using the correct tool for insert removal and replacement is stressed. Rotation and replacement are examined. Finally, concerns with previously entered tool wear offsets is revealed.

Level 3: Basic Setup Skills
(Modules 17 to 22)

Module 17: Main Collet Replacement [ Top ]

Scenes: Citizen 27, Star 31, Tsugami 59

Each specific section discusses the manual opening of the collet and removal of bar materials and turning off the bar loader. Jogging the headstock to a position from which removal and cleaning can be performed is then illustrated. The use of proper wrenches and the disassembly sequence is demonstrated. Upon removal of each component, a review of its features for opening and closing the collet and maintaining alignment is examined. Cleaning of all components and lubrication is stressed and final reassembly demonstrated. The importance of the keyway is made clear.

Module 18: Setting Main Collet Tension [ Top ]

Scenes: Citizen 39, Star 23, Tsugami 29

Each brand-specific section demonstrates the process of setting the collet tension. The mechanism for opening and closing the collet is discussed. In the Citizen section, both manual and automatic processes are examined. The bar loader is turned on and the collet opened to load a bar. The chuck-adjust tension display is revealed and the setting process completed. The process of developing a feel for collet tension is illustrated.

Module 19: Guide Bushing Replacement and Setting [ Top ]

Scenes: Citizen 43, Star 40, Tsugami 27

With the collet tension set properly, the tension on the Guide Bushing can be set next. Checking of the bushing size and type is examined using the setup documents as a reference. Removing the existing guide bushing begins the process. The proper wrenches and machine conditions are covered. Cleaning of the spindle and bushing is detailed next. The importance of the key and keyway are established during initial installation. A bar is then loaded into the new bushing using the jog controls and the Z axis control. The bar is placed into the spindle far enough to allow gripping the bar to properly test tension. The concerns of overtravel and how to recover and clear alarm conditions are covered. Use of the proper wrenches to engage the face of the bushing and the bushing tension nut are revealed along with the direction to increase or decrease tension. Manually feeling tension is discussed along with locking the tension adjusting nut when the setting is complete.

Module 20: Sub-Spindle Collet Setup [ Top ]

Scenes: Citizen 58, Star 62, Tsugami 54

With the main side collet and bushing set, the process of removing and replacing the sub-spindle collet is examined. Accessing the collet mechanism is covered first. The components of the collet body and tension setting nut are examined along with the collet operating mechanism. Removal, identifying and cleaning of the spindle and all the components is next. The proper wrenches and method of holding the collet while loosening the tension nut is examined. The knockout rod and the codes that activate it are disclosed. The rod tip is then extended by using MDI and a previous tip removed, new tip selected and mounted to match the new part. A discussion includes the concerns of tip size and collet diameter. The placement of a sample part or gage pin of the correct size in the collet is next. Setting of the proper gripping tension follows. Opening of the Sub Spindle collet is demonstrated and the removal of the sample part completes the final step.

Module 21: Setting Main Side Turning Tools [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 52, Citizen 61, Star 88, Tsugami 64

The core section examines the tool drawing and the tool layout document for the location data, tool holder and insert numbers. The ANSI numbering system for tool holders and inserts is then examined along with the function of each number. The importance of shank size is detailed. The function of the tool clamping wedge is then examined. In the specific sections, first the existing tools are removed and offsets cleared as required. Next, setup begins by setting the cutoff tool to establish the zero surface on the bar end for setting all remaining tools.

On Citizen, the Preparation page is displayed and Core, Diameter and Longitude values are defined. Concerns with chip breaking grooves lead to entering of an initial geometry offset value for centering. Mounting of the tool follows. Touching off the tool in the X axis direction is next. A discussion of other methods of setting tools is included. Manual cutoff of the bar end is then demonstrated.

Module 22: Setting End-Working Tools [ Top ]

Scenes: Citizen 41, Star 67, Tsugami 50

The Citizen section covers both turning and live tool setup. It begins with mounting a live tool high in the holder then checking that it will clear the bar before moving it into position. A discussion of the Y axis alignment preset with the tool holder is next. The bar is then extended. The tool is then placed at the Diameter location. The Position screen is checked to confirm the tool slide is at the bar diameter location. The tool is touched off and the cap nut finger tightened. The tool slide is raised and the cap nut tightened completely. The process is repeated for an end working drill.

The Star section begins by checking the setup document and then mounting an end-working tool. The MDI mode is used to place the slide at the correct location. The bar is placed at Z zero. The tool and coolant line are assembled. The drill is slid through the back of the mount to touch off the drill. Clamp screws are tightened. Conditions in which the drill will not touch off are discussed. After cutting off the bar end to establish zero, the use of a re-chucking subprogram is examined to set the headstock at the correct part length. The use of sub-programs for this purpose are detailed. The One Cycle function is explained. The module concludes by mounting sub spindle drills and test machining a part completely on main and sub sides and measuring all features.

The Tsugami section begins with the use of a preset gage to set the tool mounted on the sub spindle slide. A boring bar is one example which requires the setting of both a Z and X axis offset. The touch off is done by manually starting spindle rotation and touching off on the rotating bar. After machining on the main side is completed, the sub-spindle side tools are touched off on the end of part. An angle drill is demonstrated for touch off in Z and X. Test machining a part completely on main and sub sides and measuring of all features is then illustrated.

Level 4: Advanced Setup Skills
(Modules 23 to 30)

Module 23: Basic Canned Cycles [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 20

This module explains the basic concepts behind canned cycles and how they are utilized within EIA programs to minimize repetitive programming. The importance of the positioning block before execution of a canned cycle is covered since the start-point and endpoint of canned cycles differ from conventional programming. The G70 through G76 on Fanuc and Citizen as well as the additional G80 through G90 Fanuc series of cycles are examined. Each address within each block is defined with graphic representations and animations of the tool movements. The use of the incremental U and W addresses is explained. The establishment of the R-plane and positioning of the tool during the cycle are covered. The G80 cancellation code is also detailed.

Module 24: Threading Cycles [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 55

EIA controls have available both G codes and canned cycles for threading. This module teaches the operator to read and understand the most commonly used of these commands. The importance of feed rate and spindle synchronization is illustrated. Topics include the similarities and differences between G92, G76, and G32 commands. Examples illustrate how each command works and a typical tool path is examined. The use of E and F address words is discussed. Definitions of thread lead, TPI, and multi-start are explained. The use of a clearance groove for G32 operations is made known. The use of Z offsets to account for the location of the thread insert cutting edge is shown next. The use of a D address in G76 blocks is defined as well. The operator is also given procedures for measuring the cut threads and making needed program edits. Resources for determining the nominal dimension for the pitch diameter of a specified thread type are revealed. Techniques for bringing a thread into tolerance are then examined.

Module 25: Tapping and Boring Cycles [ Top ]

Scenes: Star/Tsugami 23

Canned cycles for tapping and boring operations used on Fanuc controls are covered in this module. The G84 tapping cycle is introduced. The tapping process is examined as well as the effect on the override and feed hold controls during a tapping cycle. Concerns with thread quality are addressed with emphasis on the drilling operation that precedes the tap. The concept of tap drills is introduced. The G85, G86, G87, G88 and G89 boring cycles are examined in detail next. The programming controlling dwell, feed rate on withdrawal, and so on, are discussed.

Module 26: Turning and Facing Cycles [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 42

In this module the operator learns how the G90 Turning and G94 Facing canned cycles work and how to safely edit them to produce acceptable workpiece features. The equivalent Citizen G77 and G79 are identified. The four common addresses found within such a block are detailed along with their function. The tool path animation is revealed in an example of each code. The modal nature of the codes is examined as a method of performing multiple passes without reprogramming the codes. Performing tapered cuts is discussed next using the I and K addresses. Methods of calculation to correct offset adjustments are provided.

Module 27: Profile Turn and Face Cycles [ Top ]

Scenes: Core 33

It may be necessary for a setup operator to edit Profile-Turning and Profile-Facing blocks. This module provides the information needed to understand these commands and to safely edit them. Topics include the G71, G72 and G70 rough and finish cut commands, the Shape Definition blocks, the P and Q address words and the blocks to which they refer, and the D address words. A detailed example illustrates the information.

Module 28: Machining the First Part [ Top ]

Scenes: Citizen: 81, Star 33, Tsugami 32

The Citizen section includes editing to turn off coolant. Machining of the main side tooling is completed to get zero established for the sub-side after cutoff. Setting of the sub-side tools with paper-gage touch off is explained next. A turning tool which requires both Z and X offsets is demonstrated. The process of entering the offsets is examined. The touching off of the remaining drills on the sub-side is demonstrated next. The use of the Hand Pulse wheel to control machining of the first part is displayed. All dimensions are checked and offsets adjusted in the final step. Coolant is restored by editing.

The Star section proceeds with the main-side machining and the setup of live tools on the previously machined surface. The coolant is turned off by editing the program codes. To avoid coolant alarms, the Air Cut mode is turned on. The ONE CYCLE mode is selected and Head 1 machining is performed with the use of the override control. Suspicious movements are stopped and the DTG display is used to evaluate the potential of collision. After completing Head 1 machining, features are measured and offsets adjusted. Next, the SIMULTANEOUS mode is selected and a complete part is machined on the main and sub-side. All sub-side machining is checked and offsets adjusted as required. Coolant is restored by editing.

The Tsugami section begins with editing to turn off the coolant systems. While shop policy may differ, the Dry Run method of execution is explained. The override control is used to slow machine movements and the DTG display is consulted to avoid potential collisions. Next, material is loaded and both the main and sub-side executed. Pickoff length is checked after cutoff, then the part dimensions are checked. The program is reset and both the main and sub-side programs are executed with use of the override control.

Module 29: Checking New Programs [ Top ]

Scenes: Citizen 36, Star 34, Tsugami 42

The Citizen portion discusses the use of One Cycle, Hand Pulse Wheel, and One Block functions as options to control execution of untried programs. It begins by checking the Machining Data page to be sure all the necessary data is loaded and is correct. The process of editing the page is illustrated. With coolant off as learned earlier, the machine is set to the start position. The One Block mode is examined along with use of the override control. The use of FEED HOLD is also illustrated. On newer model Citizen controls the use of Speed Check is shown as a precursor to program execution.

The Star section examines the Air Cut mode of operation for checking programs in conjunction with the override control. The use of Block Skip, Optional Stop and Single Block is examined before execution with material loaded. The use of the DTG display to avoid collisions is reviewed. Offsets are adjusted as required.

The Tsugami portion discusses the Dry Run feature. The Main side is selected and Dry Run with the use of the override control as well as the Block Skip, Optional Stop, and Single Block to further control execution is examined. The Program Check screen is recommended because the DTG coordinates are available for review if a problem appears. After completing Dry Run, it is turned off and material loaded. Program execution begins with the use of the normal safeguards of the override and Single Block functions. Offsets are adjusted as required.

Module 30: Editing Functions [ Top ]

Scenes: Citizen 66, Star 41, Tsugami 43

The Citizen portion examines the Edit mode and the screen displays available. Next the Insert, Delete and Backspace buttons are located and each edit type explained. The screen display identifying the edit mode is revealed. The use of the Search functions to locate data to be edited is illustrated including "String to be Found", "Search All Lines", and the forward and reverse controls. Examples of Overwrite and Insert edits are then demonstrated. The replacement of blocks is also revealed. Delete edits using Cancel and Delete buttons are shown next along with the Backspace key. An example of the use of the Replace function is next including Replace All and Replace Each. The use of Search Next is examined as well.

The Star material begins with a review of the Insert, Alter, and Delete functions explained earlier. Selection of the correct program to be edited is stressed. The use of Search functions to locate the item to edit is illustrated. Program searches both forward and back are illustrated. Examples of Insert, Alter, and Delete editing follow. Deletion and insertion of blocks is also shown. Written notification of all edits performed is recommended.

The Tsugami section covers the same Fanuc editing and search functions as shown on the Star.